Last week’s Medieval Monday post talked about bathing, and this week I thought I would continue with the theme of grooming and hygiene. Just as we take hot and cold running water for granted in our daily routines, we also don’t give much thought to having basics like toothpaste, shampoo, and safe-to-use razors for shaving.
Hair brushes as we know them didn’t seem to exist in the Middle Ages. Instead, combs were used. The material they were made from varied depending on the wealth of the person in question. Combs could be largely decorative and made of costly materials like ivory, or were made with more humble materials like bone or antler. For the most part they were shaped like the combs still used today, though some folded out to make an X shape.
Depending on the style of the time, women might shave by using pumice stones, sharpened shells, or by plucking with tweezers, though the Church frowned on this practice. It was not common among the peasantry, but more a fashion statement for the noble and wealthy. By contrast, the Church encouraged the shaving of men’s faces, though again, changing styles were also a factor. Shaving might involve simply clipping the hair very close. To achieve a smoother shave, medieval men would apply a sharp blade directly to the skin, either a crude razor or a knife. It was safer to use a barber for those who had the time and means, as even minor cuts could quickly become infected.
Surprisingly, even in medieval times some women dyed their hair, and men were known to dye their beards. There are a number of recipes for hair dye that have been documented.
“The hair when washed with the lie made of ashes of the Barberry tree and water, will make it turn yellow. To dye the hair yellow, honey and white wine left overnight on the hair then a mixture of calendine roots, olive-madder, oil of cumin seed, box shavings and saffron was recommended. Wash off after 24 hours.”
Black hair dye might be achieved with Gall Oak; “coals of burned galls being quenched in wine or vinegar; the leaves of bramble boiled in rye.” Another recipe involves “a mixture of iron, gall nuts and alum boiled in vinegar and left on the head for two days.”
Dental hygiene was also a concern, since having bad teeth was not just an inconvenience, easily fixed by a trip to the dentist. There was usually only one remedy for bad teeth that had become painful and bothersome, and that was to have them pulled—without sterile instruments or any pain killers. A harrowing experience that was best avoided if at all possible. (I had no desire to investigate the details of what was done, so I’ll not be sharing them here. You’re welcome.)
Rinsing the mouth with water was a normal practice, as was wiping the teeth with a cloth to remove food and tartar, or using “tooth sticks”. Herbs and sometimes seeds freshened breath, by rubbing them directly against the teeth or by chewing on them. Common herbs were bay, fennel, sage, mint, cloves, parsley, and cinnamon. Vinegar, wine, and salt concoctions served as mouthwashes to kill germs in the mouth.
When looking for information on this topic I found a post written by an SCA member who had not only researched different medieval toothpaste and mouthwash recipes, but had tried many of them herself and reported the results. For those of you doing book research, this page is well worth checking out. Here are a few authentic “recipes” listed on her page. Click to find more of them, and to see how they turned out when she used them on herself. Scadians are a dedicated bunch!
Hildegarde of Bingen, Physica, 1158 (German)
“One who wishes to have hard, healthy teeth should take pure, cold water into his mouth in the morning, when he gets out of bed. He should hold it for a little while in his mouth so that the mucus around his teeth become soft, and so this water might wash his teeth. If he does this often, the mucus around his teeth will not increase, and his teeth will remain healthy. Since the mucus adheres to the teeth during sleep, when the person rises from sleep he should clean them with cold water, which cleans teeth better than warm water. Warm water makes them more fragile.” (Book 2, Section 2]
Trotula, 11th Century, On Women’s Cosmetics (book 3)
“The woman should wash her mouth after dinner with very good wine. Then she ought to dry [her teeth] very well and wipe [them] with a new white cloth. Finally, let her chew each day fennel or lovage or parsley, which is better to chew because it gives off a good smell and cleans good gums and makes the teeth very white.”
Gilbertus Anglicus, [England], 11th century
“. . . let the mouth be washed with wine that birch or mint has simmered in. And let the gums be well rubbed with a sharp linen cloth until they bleed. And let him eat marjoram, mint, and pellitory, til they are well chewed. And let him rub well his teeth with the chewed herbs and also his gums. . .
And let him drink every evening wine that hyssop, or cinnamon, or spike, or quibibis (fruit of Piperaceae, Piper cubeba) has simmered in.. . And after every meal, let him wash well his mouth and rub well his gums and his teeth so that no corrupt matter abides among the teeth.”